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indium gallium concentrations

  • Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III ...

    Results. No mortality was detected in the control groups during laboratory static renewal tests (96-h acute toxicity) of the five metals. We recorded mortality in whole exposure durations for freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, exposed to varying concentrations of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper.Results demonstrated a positive relationship between the mortality ...

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  • Gallium Indium Eutectic | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

    For pure InSb at T≥250K lifetime of carrier (electrons and holes) is determined by Auger recombination: τ n = τ p ≈1/C n i 2, where C≈5·10 -26 cm -6 s -1 is the Auger coefficient.

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  • (PDF) Indium, germanium and gallium in volcanic- and ...

    Indium, germanium and gallium in volcanic- and sediment-hosted base-metal sulphide deposits Article (PDF Available) · January 2015 with 1,261 Reads How we measure 'reads'

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  • Concentrations of carbon and oxygen in indium phosphide ...

    The concentration of carbon and oxygen has been measured in various samples of LEC–grown InP and GaAs crystals using gamma photon activation analysis and mass spectrometry. The concentration of these elements was found to be extremely low (0.1–0.3 ppma) contrary to previouslyreported work.

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  • Determination of picomolar concentrations of titanium ...

    Picomolar concentrations of dissolved titanium, gallium and indium in sea water are measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (KY-MS) after concentration and separation from the major ions in sea water via an &bydroxyquinoline chelating ion exchange resin (TSK-SHQ).

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  • The Biogeochemistry of Indium, Gallium, and Germanium in ...

    Indium (In), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge) are metals important in new energy technologies, and use of these metals is expanding dramatically. Humans are significantly impacting their natural cycling. Mining and smelting appear to be currently the largest sources of these metals to the environment, primarily because In, Ga, and Ge are byproducts of lead and zinc mining.

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  • An unexpected discovery could yield a full spectrum solar cell

    In studying LEDs, however, the Berkeley Lab researchers found that the way indium joins with gallium in the alloy leaves indium-rich concentrations that, remarkably, emit light efficiently. Such defect-tolerance in LEDs holds out hope for similar performance in solar cells.

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  • Gallium, Germanium, Indium, and Iridium in Lunar Samples ...

    Neutron activation analyses of gallium, germanium, indium, and iridium in eight lunar samples and in meteorites and rocks (including four calciumrich achondrites and five terrestrial basalts) with similar bulk compositions are reported. Lunar gallium concentrations are remarkably constant at about 5 parts per million, three times higher and four times lower than those in eucritic (calciumrich ...

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  • PRODUCT DATA SHEET Gallium Nitrate Solution

    Gallium Nitrate 99581 (A) R0 Author: Indium Corporation Subject: Gallium Nitrate Solution is a stabilized aqueous solution of gallium nitrate. The solution is a clear, colorless to slightly orange solution. The nominal gallium content is 10% (w/w) but other concentrations may be …

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  • Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III ...

    Apr 01, 2014· Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, …

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  • Gallium arsenide | GaAs - PubChem

    Gallium arsenide (CAS # 1303-00-0) was evaluated for chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity in B6C3F1 mice (50//exposure level) exposed to concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/cu m for 6 hours, 5 days/week for 104 weeks.

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  • Gallium, Germanium, Indium, and Iridium in Lunar Samples ...

    Jan 30, 1970· Neutron activation analyses of gallium, germanium, indium, and iridium in eight lunar samples and in meteorites and rocks (including four calciulnrich achondrites and five terrestrial basalts) with similar bulk compositions are reported. Lunar gallium concentrations are remarkably constant at about 5 parts per million, three times higher and four times lower than those in eucritic (calcium ...

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  • (PDF) Indium/Gallium Maltolate Effects on Human Breast ...

    Both GaMal and InMal toxicity was reverted by iron citrate addition on NIH3-T3, not on MDA--231, showing indirectly that gallium and indium's mechanisms of action may include iron targeting.

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  • Indium - Wikipedia

    Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal.It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin.

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  • Bilayer indium gallium zinc oxide electrolyte-gated field ...

    Recently, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has attracted considerable attention in bioengineering owing to its high electrical mobility (>10 cm 2 V −1 S −1), small subthreshold swing ... The V O concentrations of 29 % and 39 % were equal to those of S-C and S-A, respectively.

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  • Indium Compounds | Inorganic Compounds | Products made by ...

    IndiTri ™ (Indium Trichloride or InCl 3). IndiTri ™ (InCl 3) is a white, odorless, and highly deliquescent powder.Its particles are flake or plate-shaped and highly soluble in water and mineral acids. IndiTri ™ is used as a starting compound for the synthesis of other inorganic and organic indium compounds, for example TMI (tri-methyl indium), which is the most widely used metal-organic ...

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  • Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation ...

    Also in this case the indium and gallium concentrations in the solution remained constant, while the copper content decreased to below 0.5% in 4 h. The copper yield after 6 h was %. The indium and gallium content in the deposit were below the detection limit for …

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  • Wet Etching Recipes of Metals and Semiconductors

    Concentrations Etchants Rate Temperature/Other; 3 : 1: Aqua Regia HCl : HNO 3 10-15 : microns/min RT, 25-50 microns/min: 35 C: 3 : 10-20%: Chrome Regia HCl : CrO 3: H 2 SeO 4: etch is slow: Temp should be hot: KCN in H 2 O : good for stripping gold from alumina, quartz, sapphire substrates, semiconductor wafers and metal parts : 4g : 2g : 10ml ...

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  • Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III ...

    Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water ...

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  • Indium gallium arsenide - Wikipedia

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Indium and gallium are elements of the periodic table while arsenic is a element.Alloys made of these chemical groups are referred to as "III-V" compounds. InGaAs has properties intermediate between those of GaAs and InAs.

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  • Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater from ...

    Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure.

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  • Gallium, germanium, indium, and iridium in lunar samples.

    Jan 30, 1970· 1. Science. 1970 Jan 30;167(3918):503-5. Gallium, germanium, indium, and iridium in lunar samples. Baedecker PA, Wasson JT. Neutron activation analyses of gallium, germanium, indium, and iridium in eight lunar samples and in meteorites and rocks (including four calciulnrich achondrites and five terrestrial basalts) with similar bulk compositions are reported. Lunar gallium concentrations …

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  • Exposure Potential and Health Impacts of Indium and ...

    Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is ...

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  • Solvent extraction separation of indium and gallium from ...

    The concentrations of indium and gallium were 1 and 0.5 g/L, respectively. The concentrations of indium and gallium in the aqueous phase after extraction were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and concentrations of both metals in the organic phase were calculated by …

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  • Influence of humic substances on the transport of indium ...

    The samples were then analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS Agilent 7700 s) to measure bromide, indium and gallium concentrations. To monitor the stability of ionization efficiency with time, cobalt was used as an internal standard. From the ICP-MS analysis, breakthrough curves of indium and gallium were determined.

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  • Boron group - Wikipedia

    Copper indium gallium diselenide-based technology provides the most efficient solar energy conversion among all thin-film photovoltaic devices. ... A correlation between Na and Ga concentrations ...

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  • The Biogeochemistry of Indium, Gallium, and Germanium in ...

    Dec 01, 2017· Indium (In), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge) are metals important in new energy technologies, and use of these metals is expanding dramatically. Humans are significantly impacting their natural cycling. Mining and smelting appear to be currently the largest sources of these metals to the environment, primarily because In, Ga, and Ge are byproducts of lead and zinc mining.

    Read More
  • Gallium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects

    Gallium (Ga) is a non-redox active metal that usually occurs at very low concentrations in environmental samples and therefore a wide concentration range of metal(III)–NOM species can be ...

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  • Use of and Occupational Exposure to Indium in the United ...

    Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) In 2008, indium was not detected (i.e., <~0.01 mg/m 3) in personal air samples collected on two manufacturing and two maintenance technicians at a PV facility with CIG as the indium source (Company 4, Table III). In 2010, however, indium air concentrations at this facility for two maintenance technicians ...

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  • Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide ...

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type ...

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